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Society of Friends and Pennsylvania Colony, 1682

The Society of Friends (or Quakers as they are more often called) is a protestant religious sect. It emerged out of English Puritanism in the mid seventeenth century as a radical reform movement under the leadership of George Fox (1624-1691). This was a time of intense religious agitation in England caused by the government's attempt to enforce universal acceptance of the Church of England. The people responded with a proliferation of dissenting groups, foremost of which were the Puritans.

George Fox, the first Quaker, was the son of a weaver in Leicestershire. Although he was raised in a Puritan family, he early became dissatisfied with Puritan ways and beliefs, finding them unfaithful to the tenets of the original Christian church as described in the Bible. Therefore in 1644, when he was only 20 years of age, he founded the Society of Friends for the purpose of reviving primitive Christianity as a way of life. [21]

The distinctive teachings of Fox tended to make the Quakers "a people apart." His cardinal doctrine was that religious authority dwells neither in the Bible nor in a "hireling clergy" but in the mystical "Inner Light" of God which is present in the soul of every person, and is the ultimate source of Truth, Guidance and Comfort. Early Friends worshipped together without preachers or formal church buildings. The worshipers sat in silence unless a member of the congregation felt moved by the Inner Light to pray or testify. During the initial evangelical period of the movement, worshipers would sometimes physically quiver and shake, overwhelmed with emotion as they struggled with self-judgment under the Inner Light. Hence the name of "Quakers."

Early Friends tried, literally, to live by the precepts of Jesus, hoping thus to inaugurate the reign of Christ on earth. They wore simple, drab clothing as a rejection of pride and waste, and used the familiar "thee" and "thou" in speaking and writing. This manner of address was normally reserved for God, familiars and inferiors, and was often considered offensive, particularly by the upper classes.

Consistent with their advocacy of a primal form of Christianity, Friends vigorously opposed the creeds, rituals and hierarchies of the established churches of the day, including the Puritan. They also refused to pay the state-required tithes for the support of the Church of England; to take oaths (because of the biblical injunction that all swearing is evil); to fight in wars ("Thou shalt not kill."); to take off their hats (i.e., to pay "hat-honor") to anyone but God; or to forsake their convictions in spite of repression. These idiosyncrasies were intolerable challenges to church and state at that time and the authorities reacted harshly.

Friends also developed a unique organizational structure for the Society. The Weekly Meeting was primarily devoted to worship and was the basic unit of Quaker Fellowship. Monthly Meetings were made up of the members of the Weekly Meetings within a specific, contiguous area. The Monthly Meetings certified the eligibility of members within the district (i.e., "within the bounds of the Monthly Meeting") for membership in the Society and for marriage; maintained membership records; held title to the funds and property of the Society; and disbursed funds for aid to the poor and other purposes. Several Monthly Meetings were combined to form a Quarterly Meeting; and Quarterly Meetings were in turn combined to form a Yearly Meeting that served all the subsidiary meetings in a wide geographic area, providing advice and assistance on weighty matters of principle and practice. It is from the records of the Monthly Meetings that information can best be obtained about the lives of individual Quakers and their families.

Among the early Quakers there were zealous missionaries who spread out over the British Isles, Europe and the American colonies, making many converts. In the period between 1650 and 1690 the Quakers were a very dynamic sect, likened to a spiritual explosion by Quaker historian, D. Elton Trueblood (Chaplain and Professor of Philosophy of Religion at Stanford in the 1940s). He pointed out that "Quakerism was, for a while, the fastest growing movement of the Western world". [22]

In an era of extreme religious intolerance, the impassioned approach of Quaker missionaries was at times provocative and their suffering severe--witness the execution of four Quaker missionaries by the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1659-60. The Puritan values of the Massachusetts Bay Colonists did not include religious freedom or even toleration. They brought with them to New England a full measure of the religious bigotry and superstition that was nearly universal in the Reformation society from which they sought refuge in America. This was reflected in verdicts handed down in their judicial system. The Colony Court invoked the death penalty against four Quaker missionaries who returned for the third time to preach in the Colony where they denounced the Puritan church and accused the Puritan pastors of being "hirelings of Satan." Two Quaker men and one woman were hanged in 1659, and one Quaker man was hanged in 1660. (King Charles II later issued an order to the Bay Colony forbidding them to put Quakers to death.) The Salem witchcraft trials are a further example of lethal religious fanaticism in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1691 and 1692 a Special Court of the Colony conducted these infamous trials in which 19 persons, including a Congregational clergyman and 14 women, were found guilty and hanged; and one man was pressed to death. During this era in New England, religious toleration existed only in Rhode Island, a colony founded by Puritan dissenters. [23] [24]

In England, Quakers in general faced repression. The death of Cromwell and failure of his Puritan Commonwealth was followed in 1660 by restoration of the monarchy and the rule of Charles II (1660-1685) and James II (1685-88). During their reigns, Quakers were persecuted simply because of their form of worship and their refusal to accept Anglican doctrine. At that time there were about 50,000 Quakers in England. It is estimated that as many as 5,000 of them went to prison where almost 500 died.

After Parliament under William and Mary passed the Toleration Act of 1689, Quakers were permitted relative freedom of worship. The manner in which they had shown resistance in previous years gained them many followers, as recorded by Richard Baxter, a famous Puritan preacher who was no friend of the Quakers: [25]

The fanatiks called Quakers ... were so resolute and gloried in their constancy and sufferings that they assembled openly - and were dragged away daily to the Common Gaol, and yet desisted not, but came next day nevertheless, so that the Gaol at Newgate was filled with them. Abundance of them died in prison and yet many continued their assemblies still - yea, many turned Quakers because the Quakers kept their meetings openly and went to prison for it cheerfully. . .

In the course of four decades of repression, Quakers gradually adjusted to the realities of English society. They also achieved social acceptance and even prosperity in the process. Their high ethical standards, self sufficiency, hard work, business acumen and emphasis on family life earned them respect and eventual toleration. Until the nineteenth century they were barred from universities and public office but directed their talents with success in other channels including science, commerce, banking and industry. Later, as eccentric customs of dress and speech lost meaning, their usage was laid aside; and Quaker worship and organization began in some ways to resemble that of Protestant sects such as Baptist, Methodist or Presbyterian. [26]

Pacifism has, in particular, remained a pillar of the Quaker Faith, as originally expressed in their Peace Testimony of 1660: [27]

The Spirit of God by which we are guided is not changeable; the Spirit of Christ, which leads us into all Truth, will never move us to fight and war against men with outward weapons.

Nevertheless, many Quakers have joined the armed forces of their native countries in time of national need. Another distinctive feature of modern Quakerism is the special emphasis on programs of social welfare, international relief, and peaceful resolution of international conflict. The exceptional achievements of Friends through these philanthropic endeavors are widely recognized, and gratefully acknowledged around the world.

Let us digress here briefly to cite a notable example of the Quaker humanitarian ethos in the person of Stanford alumnus and former President of the United States, Herbert Clark Hoover (1874 - 1964). He descended from a long line of Friends and epitomizes the Quaker ideal of service.

When Stanford opened on 1 October 1891, Hoover was a member of the first or "Pioneer Class" of 559 students to enter the University. He majored in Geology and Mining and graduated with an A. B.. degree in 1895. Ray Lyman Wilbur, first Dean of Stanford Medical School and later President of the University, entered Stanford one year after Hoover. As we shall later see, their lasting friendship, struck up during student days at Stanford, had important consequences for the Medical School and the University.

David Starr Jordan, first President of the University, remembered Hoover as a student and in 1922 wrote: [28]

Added to the unflinching idealism already foreshadowed in his youth, Hoover has shown in mature years a degree of administrative capacity never surpassed; no other man, moreover, has so broad an outlook on world political and economic relations. The highest motive of his life, withal, is a spirit of helpfulness, and millions now speak his name with gratitude!.

President Jordan was referring to the unprecedented scale of humanitarian relief work that Hoover accomplished during and after World War I (1914-1918). Examples of his remarkable efforts include the following. He served as Head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium and Northern France that fed and cared for some 10 million civilians during the War. After the Armistice of 11 November 1918, the Allied Leaders appointed him Director of relief and rehabilitation in Europe with the result that the organizations under his direction had fed and clothed over 200 million people by 1920. During the famine in the Ukraine from 1921 to 1923, the American Relief Administration, originally established by Hoover for the purpose of feeding the millions of children left undernourished and diseased by the War, also fed millions of Russians, adults as well as children. [29]

Hoover went on to be elected as the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933) in a landslide victory. Unfortunately, the Great Depression, which began with the stock market crash on 29 October 1929, cast a pall over his presidency that often obscures the many constructive policies adopted during his administration. However, nothing can overshadow his peerless record of practical idealism in the public arena where he continued to be active until his death in 1964 at 90 years of age. [30] [31] [32] [33]

We shall have occasion to comment later on Hoover's relationship to Stanford University as a trustee and benefactor; how his personal intervention at critical junctures saved the Medical School when its very survival was threatened; and how he influenced the choice of Ray Lyman Wilbur for President of the University.

Now that we have some understanding of the origin and beliefs of the Quakers, we can introduce William Penn (1644-1718) who founded the Colony of Pennsylvania. Born to all the advantages of the landed aristocracy of England, he was sent to the finest English schools and on a grand tour of the continent by his father, Admiral Sir William Penn, conqueror of Jamaica. While living on his family's estate in Ireland in 1667, Penn was converted at the age of 23 to the persecuted Quaker faith, and this gave new meaning and direction to the remaining 51 years of his life. His father at first disowned him, but later relented and left him a considerable fortune. Penn's outspoken support of Quakerism and opposition to the Church of England led to his imprisonment in the Tower of London in 1668-69, and twice in Newgate (in 1670 and 1671). Next to George Fox, the founder of Quakerism, Penn was the most prolific of the early Quaker writers.

Penn wanted to found an American colony that would be a refuge for the persecuted of every race and religion. The circumstances that made this possible must have seemed truly providential at the time. The Duke of York, who held a large grant of land in North America, had received a loan of 16,000 pounds from the now deceased Admiral Penn. When the Duke was gently reminded that the loan was as yet unpaid, he settled the account by transferring a generous portion of the grant to William Penn, and insisted that the territory be named for Penn's father, the Admiral. The Duke's brother, King Charles II, then implemented the grant by issuing a Charter to Penn in 1681 for a proprietary province to be known as Pennsylvania.

Settlement of the Pennsylvania Colony, that Penn called his "Holy Experiment", began without delay in 1682 at the present site of Philadelphia, an admirable location. Generous terms for land, religious toleration, and a sound frame of government were included in Penn's careful and pragmatic plan for colonization. As early colonists he mainly attracted "middling" class English, Welsh and Irish Quakers, and other groups seeking freedom of worship. They were mostly farmers, artisans and small merchants who generally came with their families. In many cases whole communities emigrated together. Penn was correct in judging that settlers such as these had the necessary motivation and practical skills to successfully develop the Colony. The Quaker ancestors of Drs. Cooper, Lane and Gibbons were among the early settlers. [34] [35]

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Medical School of the College of Philadelphia

We should call attention to the career of Dr. John Morgan (1735-1789) (MD Edinburgh 1763) who, although not a practicing Quaker himself, was descended from early Quaker immigrants. Even before the arrival of William Penn in the Colonies, Dr. Morgan's maternal great grandparents, William and Joan Biles, were prominent Quakers in Bucks County where they owned large estates in 1679. It is said that the first known meeting of the Quakers in Bucks County was held in their home on 2 May 1683 which, if true, would have preceded the meeting in 1700 at the Cooper residence referred to previously. [36]

The achievements of Dr. Morgan were undoubtedly well known to Elias Cooper who must have admired and envied his success in founding the Colonies' first medical school in 1765, the Medical School of the College of Philadelphia. This College and its Medical School have survived as the University of Pennsylvania which is recognized as having the oldest medical school in the United States.

Morgan, as did Cooper nearly a century later, aspired to establish a medical school and planned ahead for it. By the time he undertook the project, Morgan's qualifications for the task were outstanding. In 1750 at the age of fifteen he became the medical apprentice of the European-trained and highly respected Dr. John Redmond of Philadelphia. He continued with Dr. Redmond for six years during which he also attended the College of Philadelphia in 1754, '55 and '56 and was granted a B. A. degree. In 1756 he joined the Pennsylvania Provincial troops as a regimental surgeon. The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was in progress and Morgan was a member of the militarily crucial expedition under the British General Forbes who, with George Washington as his aide, drove the French from Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio River in 1758, renaming the site Pittsburgh after the great British war minister, William Pitt.

In 1760 the American phase of the war was over and the Provincial Forces were disbanded. Morgan then resigned his commission and returned to Philadelphia. While in the army he met British surgeons who impressed him with their ability, and convinced him that only in Europe could he acquire the training that would make him a leader in his profession. On 1 May 1760 his College honored him with a Master of Arts degree, and later that month he sailed for England. Morgan spent the next five years abroad, taking his MD. degree from Edinburgh in 1763, and also studying diligently in well-known centers of medical learning on the continent.

While growing up in Philadelphia, Morgan was a neighbor of Benjamin Franklin who thought highly of the young man. When Morgan arrived in England in 1760 to begin his medical studies, Dr. Franklin was an agent of the Colonies in London and was helpful to him with wise counsel and warm letters of reference to prominent people. He commended him especially to his friend and personal physician, Dr. John Fothergill (1712-1780), a scholarly gentleman and leading Quaker with one of the largest practices in London. This made for an auspicious beginning to Morgan's European sojourn.

It was while a medical student in Britain that he and William Shippen, Jr., a fellow student from Philadelphia, conceived the idea of together founding a medical school in Philadelphia. In 1765, soon after his return from Europe, Morgan independently and without consulting Shippen presented a proposal for a Medical School to the Trustees of his alma mater, the College of Philadelphia which had been established in 1749 in accordance with a plan drawn up by Benjamin Franklin. On 3 May 1765 the Trustees unanimously approved Morgan's recommendation to establish the Medical School of the College of Philadelphia; unanimously elected him Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic; and authorized him to proceed with organizing the School. Thus was medical education inaugurated in the Colonies.

Later that same month Morgan delivered his landmark Discourse upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America at the Anniversary Commencement held at the College of Philadelphia. In this address he laid out his plan for the new Medical School and made the radical proposal that the teaching and practice of medicine should be conducted by those who specialize in and confine their efforts to only one of three fields that he broadly designated as Medicine, Surgery and Pharmacy. Although the concept of specialization was valid and appealing in principle, it was ahead of its time. It drew criticism as being premature and impractical, as Morgan himself later discovered in his own practice. For many decades to come, the great majority of American physicians carried on a general practice as well as preparing and furnishing the medicines they prescribed. Nevertheless, Morgan is the best known early American advocate of the advantages of specialization and is well remembered for it. In his Discourse Morgan called for high academic standards which his School sought to maintain in the years to follow.

Later in 1765, Professor Morgan was joined on the Medical School faculty by his contemporary and fellow Philadelphian, Dr. William Shippen, Jr. (1736-1808) (MD Edinburgh 1761), who was appointed Professor of Anatomy and Surgery. In 1768 Dr. Adam Kuhn (1741-1817) (MD Edinburgh 1767) was appointed Professor of Botany and Materia Medica; and in 1769 Dr. Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) (MD Edinburgh 1768) was made Professor of Chemistry. Dr. Rush, later a member of the Continental Congress and a signatory to the Declaration of Independence, is the most widely known of this original group of four professors, all of whom were Edinburgh graduates. Small wonder that the new Medical School in Philadelphia was modeled as far as local conditions would permit after the Medical School of Edinburgh University, making it therefore reasonable to regard that great University in Scotland as the father of American medical education. [37] [38] [39] [40]

As we have already noted, Morgan established the new Medical School without including Shippen as co-founder in spite of what Shippen believed was an understanding between them that they would cooperate on the project. In order to understand Shippen's viewpoint on the matter, we must mention some relevant events occurring prior to founding the School and involving Dr. John Fothergill of London, the eminent physician and respected man of science to whom we have already referred. Dr. Fothergill was a prestigious Quaker and as such had significant influence on medical developments in Philadelphia. He was deeply concerned for the success of Penn's Holy Experiment. As young colonials from Pennsylvania, Shippen and Morgan were assured of Fothergill's hospitality and guidance. He invited them to his home and took an interest in their careers, advising them to seek clinical experience and tutelage from his friend Dr. William Hunter (ablest and most famous of the private teachers of anatomy) in London, but to go to Edinburgh for their medical degrees - counsel that they sensibly heeded. It was with Fothergill that Shippen and Morgan, who were in England at the same time during a portion of their medical studies, discussed their dream of co-founding a medical school on their return to Philadelphia.

Fothergill gave them carefully tempered encouragement and when Shippen returned home in the spring of 1762, he brought with him a set of eighteen beautifully executed anatomical drawings of dissections of the human body by Riemsdyk as a gift from Fothergill to the Pennsylvania Hospital. This hospital, precursor of the present University of Pennsylvania Hospital, was the first in the British colonies intended solely for the care of the sick and wounded. It opened in Philadelphia in 1752 as a direct result of the planning and fund-raising efforts of Dr. Thomas Bond and Benjamin Franklin. They were abetted in the project by Fothergill who was a personal friend of both. Fothergill had known Bond since the latter's student days in Europe, and had edited and written the introduction to Franklin's important pamphlet on electricity published in England in 1751. [41] Fothergill maintained an interest in the Pennsylvania Hospital for the rest of his life and, anticipating the needs of America in the future, looked forward to the eventual development of a medical school in connection with it. In a letter accompanying the Riemsdyk drawings, Fothergill wrote to James Pemberton, one of Pennsylvania Hospital's managers, as follows:

In the want of real Subjects, these (drawings) will have their Use and I recommended to Dr. Shippen to give a Course of Anatomical Lectures to such as may attend. He is very well qualified for the subject and will soon be followed by an able Assistant Dr. Morgan, both of whom I apprehend will not only be useful to the Province in their Employments, but if suitably countenanced by the Legislature will be able to erect a School for Physic amongst you that may draw Students from various parts of America and the West Indies and at least furnish them with a better Idea of the Rudiments of their Profession than they have at present the Means of acquiring on your Side of the Water.

After his return to Philadelphia Shippen organized a course in anatomy based on the Riemsdyk drawings. He opened the course with some fanfare by a public lecture in the State House on 16 November 1762. Shippen maintained that this lecture (there is no surviving copy of it) included a plan for establishing a medical school in Philadelphia to which the course in anatomy would serve as the introduction. He continued to offer lectures and demonstrations on anatomy at the Pennsylvania Hospital, utilizing the Riemsdyk drawings, so that when Morgan arrived from Europe in 1765 Shippen had already been teaching anatomy for three years, thinking that he was laying the groundwork for the new medical school which they had agreed to collaborate in founding. Imagine his chagrin when Morgan stole a march and obtained the approval of the College of Philadelphia for a Medical School in 1765 without sharing with him either the planning or the glory. Morgan's apparent duplicity was deeply resented by Shippen who nevertheless decided to join the faculty of the new school and bide his time.

For a period of two years after inauguration in 1765 of the Medical School by the Board of Trustees of the College of Philadelphia, and the appointment of Morgan and Shippen as Professors, Morgan delivered an annual series of lectures on Materia Medica and Shippen an annual series on Anatomy under the auspices of the College. Their lectures included a broad range of other medical subjects, and in 1766 Dr. Thomas Bond, still one of the physicians at Pennsylvania Hospital, commenced an annual course of Clinical Lectures in that institution, the first such lectures in an American Hospital. Since Bond was a trustee of the College of Philadelphia, it was considered unethical to give him an appointment to the faculty of the Medical School in spite of his significant contribution to its teaching program. [42] [43]

By 1767 it was time to adopt a more thorough organization of the Medical School. Accordingly, the following code of rules was approved by the Board of Trustees of the College on 12 May 1767, and published in the Pennsylvania Gazette: [44]

At a meeting of the Trustees, held the 12th of May last, it being moved to the Board that conferring the usual degrees in Physic on deserving students will tend to put the Practice of Physic on a more respectable footing in America; the motion was unanimously agreed to; and the following Course of Studies and Qualifications, after mature deliberation, was fixed on and enacted as requisite to entitle physical students to their different degrees.

For the Bachelor's Degree in Physic:

  1. It is required that such students as have not taken a Degree in any College shall, before admission to a degree in Physic, satisfy the Trustees and Professors of the College concerning their knowledge in the Latin tongue, and in such branches of Mathematics, Natural and Experimental Philosophy as shall be judged requisite to a medical education.

  2. Each student shall attend at least one course of lectures in Anatomy, Materia Medica, Chemistry, and the Theory and Practice of Physic, and one course of Clynical (sic) Lectures, and shall attend the Practice of the Pennsylvania Hospital for one year, and may then be admitted to a Public Examination for a Bachelor's Degree, provided that on previous examination by the Medical Trustees and Professors, and such other Trustees and Professors as choose to attend, such Students shall be judged fit to undergo a public examination without attending any more courses in the Medical School

  3. It is further required that each student, previous to the Bachelor's Degree, shall have served a sufficient apprenticeship to some reputable Practitioner in Physic, and be able to make it appear that he has a general knowledge in Pharmacy.

Qualifications for a Doctor's Degree in Physic:

It is required for this Degree that at least three years have intervened from the time of taking the Bachelor's Degree, and that the Candidate be full 24 years of age, and that he shall write and defend a Thesis publicly in the College, unless he should be beyond seas, or so remote on the continent of America as not to be able to attend without manifest inconvenience; in which case, on sending a written thesis, such as shall be approved of by the College, the candidate may receive the Doctor's Degree, but his thesis shall be printed and published at his own expense.

This scheme of a medical education is proposed to be on as extensive and liberal a plan as in the most respectable European Seminaries, and the utmost provision is made for rendering a Degree a real mark of Honor, the reward only of distinguished learning and abilities. As it is calculated to promote the Benefit of Mankind by the improvement of the beneficent Art of Healing and to afford an opportunity to students of acquiring a regular medical education in America, it is hoped it will meet with public encouragement, more especially as the central situation of this city, the established character of the Medical Professors, the advantages of the College and of the public Hospital, all conspire to promise success to the Design.

The courses of lectures were advertised to last for a period of six months, beginning on the first Monday of November and finishing around the first of May. Few candidates returned to take the Doctor's Degree in Physic (the MD degree) so that ultimately the Bachelor's Degree was discontinued and the M. D.. degree substituted for it, as is now the normal practice in American medical schools. At the first Commencement of the new School on 21 June 1768 the Bachelor's Degree in Physic was awarded to ten graduates. The secretary of the board wrote in his minutes that "This day may be considered the Birth-day of Medical Honors in America." The second Commencement was held on 30 June 1769 and the Bachelor's Degree was conferred on eight candidates. [45]

The life of the Medical School of Philadelphia College was hectic during its first few decades, including as they did the American Revolution (1775-1783) and the founding and early years of the Republic. Much of this historic conflict and lawmaking took place in and around Philadelphia. The Medical School suspended operation during the Revolution, and it was in this period of great national stress that Morgan, Shippen and Rush became involved in a personal vendetta that sorely tried the patience of General Washington, Morgan's former comrade-in-arms, and the United States Congress.

The rift between Morgan and Shippen over Morgan's failure to include Shippen in the founding of the Medical School never healed and was doubtless an underlying factor in their bitter legal confrontation on the national stage. The events leading up to the dispute were as follows. On 17 October 1775 Morgan was appointed Director-General of the General Hospital and Chief Physician of the Revolutionary Army to replace Dr. Benjamin Church of Boston who was discovered in treasonable correspondence with the British. Shippen was appointed to Morgan's staff. When Morgan was summarily relieved of his post in 1776 without formal charge or opportunity to defend himself, and Shippen was appointed in January 1777 to replace him as Director-General, Morgan suspected that machinations of Shippen were the cause of his dismissal. Morgan appealed to Congress for redress. Finally, after a delay of three years, Morgan received a perfunctory communication from Congress on 12 June 1779 absolving him of any wrong-doing.

Three days later, on 15 June 1779, Morgan counterattacked. In a formal statement to Congress, he charged Shippen with "Malpractice and Misconduct" in the Office of Director-General. Furthermore, Morgan offered to be a prosecution witness in Shippen's Court Martial. Benjamin Rush was Morgan's principal witness against Shippen whom they described as a "monster of public iniquity," cowardly, treacherous and false. They characterized a Shippen aide as "one of those insects who have been hatched in the sunshine of his corrupt administration." Shippen replied with similar invective to complete a thoroughly unseemly performance all around. Shippen escaped conviction, and then resigned the post of Director-General on 3 January 1781, without doubt to the great relief of Congress. But the Morgan-Shippen feud continued for years to disturb the tranquility of the faculty of the Medical School. [46] [47]

In regard to the offensive tone of the public debate in the court martial of Dr. Shippen, it should be remembered that the exchange of scathing epithets between adversaries was common in those days, and we shall learn that Elias Cooper was himself formidable in waging war with words. Cooper subscribed to Morgan's views on specialization, generally limiting his practice to surgery and fiercely defending his right to inform the profession and the community through the public press that he offered specialized services - for which he was accused of "advertising" and severely castigated by his professional colleagues. But more of this later.

Unfortunately, most American medical schools in the nineteenth century failed to sustain the commitment to high academic standards implicit in the College of Philadelphia's original "code of rules." By the end of the century, large numbers of doctors were being graduated annually, but overall quality was at a low ebb, brought down by the proliferation of inferior proprietary schools. All this was convincingly documented in the Flexner Report of 1910. [48]

This is an appropriate juncture to consider the medical renaissance initiated by Johns Hopkins Medical School, founded in Baltimore in 1893. We shall introduce the subject with some remarks on the Colony of Maryland and the Quaker family of Johns Hopkins.

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