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Chapter One Notes

  1. The only comprehensive history of Stanford Medical School ever written is a thesis submitted to the Stanford School of Education in 1949 by Robert G. Whitfield in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts. Whitfield's excellent survey entitled "Historical Development of the Stanford School of Medicine" Lane Library catalog record has never been published, but photocopies of the original manuscript are available in the School's Lane Medical Library.

    Whitfield's thesis is included among 25 books and articles that comprise the principal sources of information about Dr. Elias Samuel Cooper and the evolution of Stanford Medical School. These publications are presented in Appendix 2c.

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  2. For further information about the steamship Arabia see Babcock, F. L. , Spanning the Atlantic (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931), pp. 97-99 ; Bonsor, N. R. P. , North Atlantic Seaway: An Illustrated History of the Passenger Services Linking the Old World and the New (Prescott, Lancashire: T. Stephenson, 1955), pp.15 and 36; Dodman, F. E. , Ships of the Cunard Line (New York: John De Graff, Inc., 1955), pp. 33-36; and Gibbs, C. R. V. , Passenger Liners of the Western Ocean: A Record of the North Atlantic Steam and Motor Vessels from 1838 to the Present Day, 2nd ed. (New York: John De Graff, Inc., 1957), pp. 62-63.

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  3. The actual dates of Dr. Cooper's departure for and arrival in England in 1854 have been determined as follows. We learn from his letter to fellow passenger Hugh Keenan posted in Edinburgh on 18 October 1954 that they sailed on the S. S. Arabia. At the time of Cooper's voyage, the Arabia was operated by the Cunard Steam-Ship Line whose records are preserved in Liverpool University Archives. Among these records is the Arabia's Passage Book for the period from January to December 1854. According to Liverpool University Archivist Michael Cook, the Passage Book shows that the ship's last three sailings in 1854 from New York to Liverpool were 23 August to 2 September; 4 October to 14 October; and 15 November to 26 November. On 4 December 1854 the Arabia sailed as a Crimean War Troopship with gunpowder to Marseilles where she picked up French troops. No Passenger Lists for the Arabia are available. Assuming that Cooper wrote the Keenan letter as soon as possible after arriving in England, it seems reasonable to conclude that Cooper's Atlantic crossing was from 4 to 14 October 1854.

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  4. Hugh Keenan was serving as United States Consul at Cork, Ireland, on 30 September 1855 and on 30 September 1857 according to the Register of all Officers and Agents, Civil, Military and Naval, in the Service of the United States, compiled and printed under the direction of the Secretary of State in Washington, D.C.: A.O.P. Nicholson, Public Printer, 1855 and 1857. Keenan is not listed in the Register as being employed in the consular service as of 30 September 1853 or 30 September 1859. He therefore must have taken up his post at some time between September 1853 and September 1855. This would be consistent with his passage on the Arabia in October 1854. Keenan is shown in the Register as a native of Ireland, and a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was appointed to the Consular Service from Pennsylvania. We have no record of a response by Keenan to Cooper's letter of 18 October 1854, and no other reference to Keenan can be found among Cooper's personal papers, many of which have unfortunately been lost.

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  5. Lane, L. C. , "Dr. Henry Gibbons. In Memoriam," Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Western Lancet 28, no. 2 (Feb 1885): 59.Lane Library catalog record

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  6. Rixford, E. , "Early medical schools on the Pacific Coast," Pacific Medical Journal 56, no. 3 (Mar 1913): 158.Lane Library catalog record

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  7. Correspondence, n.d. - Box 1, Folder 5, Elias Samuel Cooper Papers - MS 458, California Historical Society, North Baker Research Library.

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  8. The quotation from Emerson (1803-1882) is from "Essays: First Series. History" , [1841] The Essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Illustrated Modern Library (USA: Random House, Inc, 1944), p. 7. Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), a contemporary and friend of Emerson, had originally expressed a similar view of biography in 1830: "History is the essence of innumerable Biographies." ( "Essay on History," in Critical and Miscellaneous Essays in Five Volumes, vol. 2 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899), p. 86.) Carlyle repeated the same theme in 1840: "The History of the world is but the Biography of great men." ( "Lecture on The Hero as Divinity," in Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1897), p. 39.)

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  9. Hunt, R. D. , History of the College of the Pacific, 1851-1951 (Stockton, California: Published by The College of the Pacific, 1951), pp. 1-15.

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  10. University (City) College, a Presbyterian school, was founded in 1860 under the name of City College. The name was changed to University College in 1868, but was thereafter commonly referred to as University (City) College. It was located at Stockton and Geary Streets in San Francisco in 1872. Because of financial difficulty, the College sold its land at Stockton and Geary in 1875; purchased a frontage of 400 feet at 129 Haight Street; and moved some of its buildings to that location at considerable expense. College classes were essentially suspended after 1875. When fund-raising efforts proved unsuccessful, the College property was sold to a private party in 1879, but the new buyer was never able for financial reasons to open a school at the Haight Street site. For additional details see Clifford Drury , William Anderson Scott - A Biography (Glendale, CA: Arthur Clark, 1967); and Coote RB and Maaga M. , ""Why is San Francisco Theological Seminary in San Anselmo?"" Pacific Theological Review 21, no. 2 (Spring 1988):

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  11. Addresses by Timothy Hopkins, Emmet Rixford and David Starr Jordan, Dedication of the Lane Medical Library, Leland Stanford Jr. University, San Francisco, November 3, 1912, Leland Stanford Junior University Publications, Trustees Series No. 22 (Stanford University, California: Published by the University, 1912), pp. 8 and 20Lane Library catalog record; Christina Man-wei Li , "The History of the Lane Medical Library, 1912-1967," (A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Librarianship, San Jose State College, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, January 1968), 87 pp.Lane Library catalog record

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  12. Construction data obtained from "Physical Plant - A Report." Last Revised 25 September 1990. Prepared by Stanford Medical School Facilities Planning Office.

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