This chapter includes: Voyage of the Arabia, Cooper's secret plan to found a medical school as the Medical Department of the University of Pacific (1858-1864, 1870-1871) and an outline of the chronology of the predecessor schools, Medical College of the Pacific (1872-1881), Cooper Medical College (1882-1912), and Stanford Medical School (1909-present).
The Cooper family migrates West to Ohio during the settlement of the Northwest Territory. The Northwest Ordinance and its influence on the discovery and early settlement of the Far West is covered as are the American Immigration and Conquest of California and the Gold Rush and San Francisco.
This chapter covers:
- Ancestry of Elias Samuel Cooper and Levi Cooper Lane
- Religion in America Reformation in Europe (1500-1700)
- Reformation in England (1534-1689)
- Six American Colonies Founded for Religious Reasons
- Massachusetts Bay Colony founded in 1630
- Harvard College founded, Massachusetts Bay colony, 1636
- Society of Friends founded Pennsylvania Colony, 1682
- Hoover as student in 1st class at Stanford in 1891, p. 18
- First American Med. School founded, Philadelphia, 1765
- Maryland Colony 1633; Johns Hopkins Med. School, 1893
- Full-time professorial appointments at Hopkins, 1913
- Osler began Clinical Clerkships at Hopkins, 1896
- Residency Training began at Hopkins, 1890
- Hopkins provides Faculty and a model for Stanford
This chapter covers:
- Elias Samuel Cooper's Early Life, Family and Education
- Levi Cooper Lane's Early Life, Family and Education
- Elias Cooper, Danville Surgeon
- Daniel Drake and Midwestern Medical Education
- Ephraim McDowell, Pioneer Surgeon
- Elias Cooper Graduates from St. Louis University
The chapter covers:
- Midwestern Public Health in Elias Cooper's day
- Advance of Scientific Medicine in the 19th Century
- Demise of Medical Systems
- Anesthesia, Pasteur, Lister and Koch
Elias Cooper moves to Peoria in 1844 to open a dissecting room and teach Anatomy. He competed for the Anatomy Post at Rush and Lost in 1850, despite his frustration with academic ambitions, he establishes a busy surgical practice.
The first Hospital in Peoria is founded and advertised. Cooper is active in the Medical Society but Censured for Advertising. Cooper studies in Europe between October-December, 1854 and returns to San Francisco by Sea, April-May, 1855.
Cooper arrives in San Francisco on May 26th, 1855, explores the City, and establishes the infirmary and clinic that he advertises. He also advertises a course of Anatomical and Surgical Lectures and quickly gains a reputation for being a brilliant surgeon. Some local doctors resent this.
This chapter covers the early Med. Societies in San Francisco and Sacramento. The S.F. county Medical-Chirurgical Association is established in 1855. Cooper is a Founding Member and elected President a year later.
The Medical Society of the State of California was founded on the initiative of Elias Samuel Cooper.
Elias Samuel Cooper, who was barred from seeing the patient, severely criticizes the surgical treatment of James King of William, editor of the San Francisco Evening Bulletin. The editor's death from a gunshot wound near the left subclavian artery precipitated the revival of the Vigilance Committee. The entire vigilante episode is described in some detail, including Dr. Beverly Cole's successful treatment by ligation of a stab wound of the left common carotid artery incurred by a vigilante.
The case of James King of William is discussed at the meeting of the State Society by Dr. Cole, Surgeon General of the Vigilance Committee, who is highly critical of the treatment. There are legal repercussions of this criticism which are described elsewhere.
Dr. Cooper is expelled from the Medico-Chirurgical Association for seeking to advertise his report on removal of a foreign body from near the heart.
Dr. Cooper successfully performs a cesarean section with consequences to which we shall later refer.
The history of early medical Journals in California are reviewed. David Wooster becomes editor of Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal.
Editor Wooster betrays the confidence of Cooper and begins a vitriolic campaign against him in the Journal, alleging unethical Advertising.
The third Annual (1858) Session of the California State Medical Society meets in San Francisco. Cooper's enemies make an organized attempt to exclude him (the founder) from the Society. They accuse him of unethical advertising. A heated discussion ensues and during a recess in the debate Cooper (a powerful man) "shook up" one of his adversaries. Various accounts of the event differ in the details. The attempt to expel Cooper from the Society fails, but the Society is mortally wounded and eventually expires.
Also at the Third Annual Meeting of the State Medical Society, Cooper reports a case of cesarean section with survival of the mother (the first in the West). To Cooper's utter surprise Dr. Wooster, who had assisted him at the operation, then arose to give his opinion of the procedure. He insists that the operation was unnecessary; that it resulted in the death of the infant and disability of the mother; and that it was clearly a case of malpractice.
This Chapter consists of a detailed account of the most infamous malpractice litigation in early California history. The perfidious David Wooster prevails upon the impressionable and venal cesarean patient (a Mrs. Hodges) to Cooper adversaries and supporters are artfully deployed by opposing teams of prominent attorneys.
Cooper is exonerated. The trial exposes the malice and hypocrisy of his professional enemies who, in their plot to destroy him, shamelessly victimized a credulous and avaricious patient.
Cooper never takes the stand. Wooster is unanimously charged by a Grand Jury of twenty-one citizens of San Francisco with the crime of perjury for his testimony in the malpractice trial.
This chapter covers:
- Organization of the Medical Department
- Financing American Medical Education
- Status of American Medical Education in 1858
- Biographical Sketches of the Faculty
- Teaching Program and Faculty Meetings
- Fourth Annual (1859) Session of the Medical Society of the State of California. This was a tempestuous meeting followed by wholesale resignations. Dissolution of the Society was now only a matter of time.
During the first two years of the new medical school, the institution is furiously denounced in the local and national medical press as both unnecessary and an academic farce. Dr. Wooster of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal is chief inquisitor. Cooper himself is the lightening rod for much of the criticism based on accusations of unethical advertising and his alleged gross misjudgment in performing the widely-condemned cesarean section. Critics from as far away as New York weigh in. It is fair to say that no newborn medical school ever encountered a more hostile environment, or received more determined support from its beleaguered parentage.
In spite of the burdens of surgical practice, medical teaching and physical infirmities, Cooper decides to act on his long-standing plan to edit and publish a medical journal. The first issue of the San Francisco Medial Press is published in January 1860. The last half of the Chapter is devoted to the venomous press warfare not untypical of the period.
Chapter 17: Third and Fourth Annual Sessions Medical Department, University of the Pacific and Demise of Medical Societies
Academic affairs related to the teaching program during the third Annual Session of the Department (November 1860-march 1861) are summarized. The Session goes smoothly and MD degrees are awarded to six students at Commencement Exercises "before a large audience in Tucker's Hall."
The fourth Annual Session is memorable for two additions to the faculty: (1) Levi Cooper Lane who had just returned from postdoctoral studies in Europe to receive appointment as Professor of Physiology; (2) Henry Gibbons, Sr., who replaced Dr. Carman as Professor of Materia Medica. Except for the leadership of these two professors in the years ahead, the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific would not have long survived the death of Elias Cooper.
In spite of Cooper's efforts to preserve the California State Medical Society, it becomes disorganized by internal dissension. The Sixth Annual Meeting of the Society in February 1861 was its last. The beginning of the Civil War on 12 April 1861 doubtless contributes to a general disinterest in medical societies.
Cooper continues to feud with Wooster whom he characterizes as bearing "the reputation of a cattle thief in Yuba Country (his former residence);" and as being "an unmitigated perjurer for which he was indicted through not convicted." Wooster leaves the editorship of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal in December 1861, answering the call to duty in the union army. Thus concludes the most notorious episode of medical duplicity and professional treachery in California history.
This chapter provides a detailed assessment of Elias Cooper's professional contributions. He was a surgeon of exceptional technical ability. He was also highly productive of published observations, both clinical and experimental. Since a list of his papers had never been assembled, we searched the journals of his day and compiled a bibliography of 139 original articles and commentaries (see Appendices 2a and 2b). From these we draw some conclusions as to the significance of his surgical work, bearing in mind of course the state of the art at the time and the resources available to him.
Dr. Cooper's death on 13 October 1862 in the 41st year of his life was due to a neurological disorder of unknown origin. Clinical and autopsy details and a lengthy obituary by his nephew, Dr. Levi Cooper Lane, are provided. Speculation as to the cause of death continues. His brain and heart were preserved in two glass canisters which have disappeared since the demolition of the original cooper Medical College buildings.
Chapter 20: Suspension of Medical Department University of the Pacific and Founding of Toland Medical College 1864
The premature death of Elias Cooper, the Medical department's founder and leader, occurred on the eve of the Fifth Annual Session of the Department. It was during this Session that Dr. Lane emerged as a major source of stability and continuity in school affairs.
The Sixth Annual Session of the Department from November 1863 to March 1864 was uneventful and the School appeared to have made a successful transition to the post-Cooper era with ranks closed and Faculty strengthened. The School had made slow but steady progress during its first six years.
As the summer of 1864 wore on, preparations for opening the Seventh Session of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific continued. It was at this critical juncture that Dr. Hugh H. Toland, prominent and exceedingly prosperous San Francisco Surgeon, completed the construction of a new medical school building in downtown San Francisco and opened the Toland Medical College. The Toland building far overshadowed the modest facilities of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific.
Under the circumstances, Drs. Lane, Gibbons and other key members of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific decide to join the Toland school in the fall of 1864. They stay with the Toland Faculty for six Annual Sessions, departing in 1870 to re-open the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific. The last three-quarters of this Chapter consists of a detailed account of this stormy and critical period of transition, a period followed by many future repercussions.
The Medical Department of the University of Pacific is revived. On the evening of May 23rd 1870, barely six weeks before the scheduled opening of the Seventh Annual Session of Toland Medical College, an historic meeting is convened in the office of Dr. Henry Gibbons, Sr., at 28 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. Those present include Drs. Henry Gibbons Sr., Levi Cooper Lane, Thomas Price, Beverly Cole and Henry Gibbons, Jr.
After some conversation as to the best course to pursue, they vote unanimously to resign from Toland Medical College and reopen the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific.
A life and death struggle for survival between the Medical Department and the Toland School begins during the Session of 1870. In order to clarify the complicated maneuvers of the two schools during this period, about which there is considerable confusion in the literature, the remainder of this Chapter is devoted to a chronological account of the relevant major events.
Chapter 22: Medical College of the Pacific Established in 1872 and National Efforts to Reform Medical Education
The following important events that occurred during the critical decade from 1864 to 1873 are described: (1) the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific is suspended and revived; (2) Toland Medical College is founded and its adoption by the University of California finally arranged.
Having completed a summary of these events, this chapter relates how the revived Medical Department of the University of the Pacific becomes the Medical College of the Pacific in 1872 through affiliation with University (City) College, and retains that name and affiliation until succeeded by the Cooper Medical College in 1882.
Dr. Henry Gibbons, Sr., as President of the San Francisco Medical Society is prime mover in the re-establishment of the Medical Society of the State of California at a meeting on 19 October 1870 called for the purpose.
It is during the era of the Medical College of the Pacific from 1872 to 1882 that reform of American medical education becomes increasingly an issue of national concern. Since it is a major object of this history of Stanford Medical School and its predecessor institutions to relate their development to the progress of medical education nationally, the subject of reform is addressed in the next chapter.
The Faculty, teaching program and administrative affairs of the Medical College of the Pacific are covered in detail so that the standards and attempted reforms of this proprietary medical college may be clarified. Professor Gibbons, Sr., volubly questions the need for reforms.
A scandal-mongering News Letter alleged gross irregularities in the awarding of degrees by the Medical College of the Pacific, and exposed a member of the College Faculty who falsely claimed to have a M. D. degree. Professor Gibbons, Sr. is wrongly accused of selling medical diplomas.
Levi Cooper Lane spends two years in Europe (1874-1876) engaged in advanced medical studies. On his return, he discusses his experiences in the Valedictory Address to the graduating class of the Medical College of the Pacific on 2 November 1876.
Levi Cooper Lane, secretly and from his own funds, builds a handsome and capacious brick and stone medical college building at the corner of Sacramento and Webster Streets in San Francisco. The estimated cost of construction was $80,000 and the value of the land was $20,000, bringing he overall value of the property to $100,000. He then invites the Faculty of the Medical College of the Pacific to join him in founding the Cooper Medical College in memory of his Uncle Elias Samuel Cooper. They concur and the entire Faculty, teaching program and student body of the Medical College of the Pacific are converted to Cooper Medical College.
International Medical Congress of 1877. Dr. Lane is appointed to membership on the Planning Committee for this important gathering sponsored by the American Medical Association. Dr. Beverly Cole, first Dean of the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, (since defected to become Dean of the Medical Department, University of California) manages through political machinations to remove Dr. Lane and some other prominent people from the Planning Committee. Dr. Lane is incensed and makes a public issue of the matter, but there is no evidence that Dr. Lane's indignant reproof troubles Dr. Cole in the slightest.
An addition is made to the College Building in 1890. In 1890. As an extension of the original College building, Dr. Lane erects, entirely at his own expense, another handsome brick and stone structure of equal size and similar architecture.
Revision of Faculty Bylaws, biographies of Drs. Rixford and Stanley Stillman, and a progress report on the curriculum and library are outlined.
1891 marks the founding of Stanford University and the Appointment of David Starr Jordan as President.
Dr. Lane exacts a pledge from the Faculty that they will never permit Cooper Medical college to be taken over by a University.
When the project to double the size of the original college building is completed in 1880, the classrooms and laboratories of the school were among the best in the country. Yet Dr. Lane believes that the College would require additional facilities if it were to realize his dream of self-sufficiency and supremacy for the school. At the meeting of the Board of Directors of the College on 18 March 1892, Dr. Lane states enigmatically that he "contemplated improvements in the form of an extension of Cooper medical college." He makes no reference to the nature of these "improvements" until he delivers his "Annual Report of the President" to the Board almost a year later on 23 January 1893.
In that report Dr. Lane states, with obvious pride, that "During the year which has just elapsed the number of matriculates was 178, a greater number of students than at any previous time in the history of the College. There were 38 graduates; the proficiency of these as well as of the Juniors and Freshmen, was in general of a high order." He then added: To increase the efficiency in the work of Clinical Instruction, I will soon create a hospital on the grounds of the Corporation, with facilities for caring for about one hundred patients; and the funds for erecting the hospital will be furnished by myself. The new hospital and its administration are discussed.
Lane Hospital Training School for Nurses, inaugurated by Mrs. Lane in 1895, is but one of her many significant contributions to the farsighted and generous designs of her husband.
The Lane Course of Medical Lectures is announced by Dr. Lane at the meeting of the Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College on 26 August 1895.
Early Plans for Lane Medical Library are described by Dr. Rixford 35-36 Contributions to medical teaching program by Stanford Professor of Physiology Oliver Peebles Jenkins are outlined.
Biographical sketches are included for the following: Ray Lyman Wilbur (1875-1949), William Ophüls (1871-1933), Albert Abrams (1863-1924)
The year 1901-1902 is not only the twentieth anniversary of the founding of Cooper Medical College, but it is also the eve of revolutionary reforms in American medical education. Thus it is an appropriate year in the life of the College to review its academic status.
In so far as national standards of medical education existed in 1901-1902, they were those promulgated by the Association of American Medical Colleges. The most controversial issues under consideration by the Association were: (1) requirements for admission to medical school and (2) duration and content of the annual lecture program. The Association met at San Francisco in 1894 and voted to emend their constitution to specify: (1) a high school diploma as the minimum requirement for admission to medical school and (2) four annual graded courses of lectures of not less than six months' duration each as a minimum for graduation.
The remainder of the Chapter is devoted to assessing the academic standing of Cooper Medical College in relation to that of the 160 American medical schools in operation in 1901-1902. Information was gathered and evaluated on the following aspects of medical school programs: Minimum Requirements for Admission; Number of Annual Graded Courses of Lectures; Length of Lecture Courses; Educational, Laboratory and Hospital Facilities; Teaching, Research and Clinical Performance of Faculty; Performance of Graduates on State Board Examinations
In the winter of 1901-1902 Dr. Lane's strength began to fail. By this time he had become convinced that union with Stanford University was essential to the survival of Cooper Medical College. He therefore rescinded the pledge forbidding such union and met with President Jordan of Stanford University on several occasions to discuss the matter. Dr. Lane died on 18 February 1902 before a decision on merger was reached. Dr. Charles N. Ellinwood was elected to succeed Dr. Lane as President of the Cooper Medical College and of its Faculty.
Dr. Lane's uncle, Professor Jacob Cooper of Rutgers University in New Jersey, comes to California to advise Mrs. Lane on her will. For complicated personal reasons, she makes Dr. Ellinwood the beneficiary of two-thirds of the Lane estate on the assumption that he will devote it to the establishment of a memorial Lane Medical Library and to the endowment of the Lane Medical Lectures.
Mrs. Lane dies 9 August 1902. Her will is contested.
President Ellinwood refuses to finance the construction of Lane Medical Library, the purchase of journals and books for the Library, and the endowment of the Lane Course of Medical Lectures. By a series of deceptions and gradual disclosures President Ellinwood makes it finally obvious that he does not intend to support these projects with the two-thirds of the Lane estate bequeathed to him.
President Ellinwood is Impeached. An irate Board of Directors of Cooper Medical College removes Dr. Ellinwood from the office of President of the College on 5 February 1907, replacing him with Vice President Edward R. Taylor. Ellinwood promptly denounces his impeachment and attacks Dr. Taylor in the press. A bitter and embarrassing exchange of recriminations ensues, casting Ellinwood in an unfavorable light. In the years that follows, he firmly maintains that Mrs. Lane intended the two-thirds of the Lane fortune as a personal gift to him, encumbered by no obligation to support the Lanes' last and dearest wishes - construction of a monumental medical library and endowment of the Lane Course of Medical Lectures.
During Dr. Ellinwood's troubled presidency of Cooper Medical College, growing Faculty interest in Joining Stanford University culminated in a strong consensus in its favor. Stanford's President Jordan was also favorably disposed to a merger of the two institutions but before serious negotiations could begin he is obliged to solve two major problems - the nature of the educational program to be adopted and the source of funds to support it.
Outside consultants from the East strongly urge President Jordan not to maintain a second medical school in San Francisco but to establish a Graduate School of Medical Research. Fortunately, Cooper's professor of Pathology, William Ophüls, is among Dr. Jordan's trusted advisors in the West. It is Dr. Ophüls who convinces Dr. Jordan of the wisdom of continuing an MD program under Stanford auspices in the Cooper Facilities.
Tortuous but amicable negotiations between the Stanford Board of Trustees and the Directors of the Cooper Corporation begin in 1906. They culminate in transfer to the Stanford Board of Trustees of all the real and personal properties of Cooper Medical College in 1909.
In accordance with a prior agreement to loan the Cooper facilities to the Cooper Faculty for continuation of their College program through June 1912, full possession by the University of that portion of the Cooper properties are delayed until 1 July 1912. On that date the succession of memorable institutions that celebrated the ideals and efforts of Elias Samuel Cooper and Levi Cooper Lane - second to none in the annals of medical education in the West - merged with Stanford University and become the historical antecedents of its School of Medicine. The consolidation of Cooper Medical College and Stanford University united two institutions, each dedicated to the memory of a dearly beloved and to the service of mankind.
In the beginning, medical education in the West was born of the aspirations of Elias Samuel Cooper and a few other remarkable men. May this account of their labors revive the memory of their achievements, and of their crucial roles in the founding of the first and still thriving medical school on the Pacific Rim.
As soon as the transfer of Cooper Medical College properties to Stanford was decided upon in 1908, but before the actual transfer was completed in 1909, President Jordan begins to pursue intensively the important work of converting Cooper Medical College to a University medical Department. As the first step he appoints a Committee of Three to consider the organization and entrance requirements of the Medical Department, and adaptation of the medical course to related work in the existing departments of the University.
The Committee of Three also arranged for the appointment of a Provisional Medical Faculty consisting of twelve professors and three associate professors who already belonged to the Cooper or Stanford Faculty, and would doubtless be engaged in the future work of the Medical Department. Meanwhile they would serve as an advisory committee to the President with special reference to the teaching program of the Department.
The Committee of Three and the Provisional Faculty proceeded to prepare the following: Plan for the organization of the Medical Department; Requirements for Admission; The Curriculum in Medicine; Fee Schedule; Requirements for Graduation;
Appointment of Additional Basic Science Faculty. President Jordan's determination to bring Stanford's new medical Department to University level as soon as possible was evident in his prompt appointment of five new basic science faculty members to strengthen the teaching and research program. The Old Museum Buildings on the campus are renovated to provide them with offices and labs.
During consolidation negotiations it is decided that the last class of Cooper Medical College would be admitted on 17 August 1908 and would graduate on 9 May 1912; and that the first class of Stanford University's Department of Medicine would begin on 8 September 1909 and graduate on 19 May 1913.
Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur assumes his duties as Executive Head, Department of Medicine, on 1 January 1911.
The Flexner Report of 1910 is highly critical of Cooper Medical College. These criticisms are countered in a long letter from Dean Gibbons to President Pritchett of the Carnegie Foundation, from whom Dean Gibbons receives a sharp response.
An outline of Flexner's Master Plan for American Medical Education is included.
During the crucial period from 1912 through 1914 the rapid advance and promising outlook of the Department of Medicine so impressed the Trustees that one of them remarked that "the medical school was the only thing that had put any life into the University." As a result they approve funds for expansion of the teaching as well as the hospital facilities.
Furthermore, the Trustees move promptly to honor their commitment to erect and maintain the Lane Medical Library which was formally dedicated at San Francisco on 3 November 1912. The addresses given on the occasion by Trustee Timothy Hopkins, Professor Emmet Rixford and President David Starr Jordan are excerpted, as is the Appendix by Dean Ray Lyman Wilbur.
President Jordan is elevated to the newly established position of Chancellor and Professor of Geology. John Branner is appointed President in May 1913. President Branner had opposed the merger of Cooper Medical College with Stanford. On learning that the University budget is strained and that the Medical Department is receiving funds in excess of the amount originally allocated to it, he demands that the Medical Department receive no further support from the University and that the entire Department be turned over to the University of California.
Trustee Herbert Hoover prevails on the Board of Trustees to retain the Medical Department, a decision strongly supported by an outside consultant (Dean Vaughan of the University of Michigan School of Medicine).
This chapter covers: Origin of the Full-Time Concept. Johns Hopkins Faculty serves as the model. General Education Board of the Rockefeller Institute. The GEB funds Johns Hopkins and denies support to Harvard. Commentary on the impact of the Full-Time System.
Annual Reports of the Medical School for 1911-1922. Significant events as recorded in these Reports: Stanford University Hospital was completed and opened for patients on 26 December 1917. A new building to be known as "The Stanford School of Nursing" is formally opened on 31 March 1922. The General Education Board denies approval of Stanford's grant application for a special endowment.
This chapter covers: Albion Walter Hewlett's career; History of Medicine Library established; Campaign for endowment and plan for development of the School of Medicine; The Hoover presidency and War Library.
This chapter covers:
- Biography of Dean Chandler
- World War II
- Planning for future of Medical School by President Tresidder but with no progress.
This chapter covers:
- Deanship of Dr. Cutting
- Deanship of Dr. Alway. Move of the School to the Campus in a new Medical Center, with a new curriculum and full-time faculty organization
- Retrospective on "The Alway Years."
This chapter covers the Deanship of Dr. Robert J. Glaser. He conducts complex negotiations with the City of Palo Alto resulting in the purchase by Stanford of the City's proportion of ownership of the Palo Alto-Stanford resulting, in consolidation of the institution which then became the Stanford University Medical Center wholly owned by Stanford.